Joyce Carol Oates (1938– ) has an extensive bibliography which includes more than seventy books. She has written novels, short stories, poetry, and essays, and at one point was writing two or three books a year. She has received tremendous acclaim for her work. Oates first began writing when her grandmother gave her a typewriter as a teenager. She went on to graduate from Syracuse University as the valedictorian, and obtained her masters in English from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. Oates has taught at the University of Windsor in Canada, the University of Detroit, and Princeton University. Among the many nominations and awards Oates has received are the 1969 National Book Award for them, a PEN/Malamud Award for Excellence in Short Fiction, and three nominations for the Pulitzer Prize (Black Water, 1992; What I Lived For, 1994; and Blonde, 2000). Joyce Carol Oates is the author of The Rise of Life on Earth.