Camilo José Cela (1916–2002) was a Spanish novelist who was incredibly influential to the world of Spanish Literature. During his lifetime he wrote more than 70 works, including essays, poems, travel books, and novels and he was associated with the Generation of ‘36 movement. His writing was often said to include a sarcastic, grotesque realism and his first novels had to be published in Argentina, instead of his native Spain, because they were considered too foul and violent. He earlier works received the most acclaim, particularly La Colmena (The Hive) and La Familia de Pascual Duarte (The Family of Pascual Duarte). His novel The Hive included more than 300 characters and showed the influence of both Spanish realism and contemporary English- and French-language authors. In 1957 he was appointed to the Royal Spanish Academy and Cela helped to oversee the literary style of the Spanish Constitution in 1997, when he was appointed to Spain’s Parliament. Cela received numerous awards, most notably the 1989 Nobel Prize in Literature and the 1996 Cervantes Prize. King Juan Carlos I granted him the title of Marquis of Iria Flavia in 1996.